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Table 2 Transgenic models of HNSCC

From: Preclinical models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for a basic understanding of cancer biology and its translation into efficient therapies

Transgenic modification Promotor Anatomical site Prevalence Onset (months) Reference
Spontaneous models
 E6/E7/mrasR12 K14 OC 100 3–4 [44]
 KrasG12/TP53del/del K14 T 100 < 1 [45]
 KrasG12/KLF4del/del K14 T 21 < 1 [46]
 KrasG12/SMAD4wt/del K14 OC n.a. 3–4 [47]
 SMAD4del/del K14 OC 74 10 [47]
4NQO-induced models
 GRHL3del/del K14 OC, L, P 40 3–4 [48]
 PTENdel/del K14 OC 100 1–2 [49]
 miR-211 K14 T n.a. 3 [50, 51]
 miR-31 K14 T 80 3 [52]
  1. Abbreviations: K14 keratin 14, OC oral cavity, T tongue, L larynx, P pharynx, n.a. not available