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Table 2 Associations between selected factors and IL-6 serum levels (N = 527)

From: Predictors of circulating INTERLEUKIN-6 levels in head and neck cancer patients

Factors Categories Median IL-6 (ng/L) (IQR) Crude β (SE) P-value
Age (years) ≤ 50 2.4 (1.0–3.7) Reference  
>  50 ≤ 60 2.9 (2.0–3.9) 0.15 (0.11)  
>  60 ≤ 70 3.2 (2.4–4.4) 0.34 (0.11)  
>  70 3.5 (2.6–5.1) 0.48 (0.11) <  0.0001
Sex Female 3.0 (2.2–3.9) Reference  
Male 3.1 (2.2–4.6) 0.15 (0.07) 0.04
Current body mass index (kg/m2) <  18.5 3.5 (2.5–5.1) 0.13 (0.17)  
≥ 18.5 < 30 2.9 (2.1–4.1) Reference  
≥ 30 3.8 (2.7–4.9) 0.22 (0.08) 0.02
Body mass index at 20 years (kg/m2) <  18.5 3.0 (2.0–4.9) −0.06 (0.11)  
≥ 18.5 < 30 3.1 (2.2–4.4) Reference  
≥ 30 4.1 (2.7–7.0) 0.43 (0.17) 0.04
Marital status Not married 3.3 (2.5–4.6) Reference  
Married 3.0 (2.1–4.4) −0.16 (0.07) 0.02
Household income (per year) < $40,000 3.3 (2.3–4.6) Reference  
≥ $40,000 2.7 (2.0–3.7) −0.22 (0.07) 0.02
Karnofsky Performance Status (%) 90–100 3.0 (2.2–4.3) Reference  
60–80 4.9 (2.9–5.8) 0.46 (0.11) <  0.0001
Charlson Comorbidity Index 0 2.9 (2.1–3.9) Reference  
1 3.4 (2.1–5.1) 0.24 (0.07)  
≥ 2 3.7 (2.8–5.2) 0.38 (0.09) <  0.0001
Diabetes No 3.0 (2.2–4.4) Reference  
Yes 3.6 (2.8–5.0) 0.22 (0.12) 0.06
Glottic cancer No 3.5 (2.5–5.0) Reference  
Yes 2.9 (2.1–4.1) −0.22 (0.06) 0.0004
TNM clinical stage I 2.9 (2.1–4.2) Reference  
II 3.4 (2.4–4.9) 0.17 (0.06) 0.007
Tobacco consumption
(all tobacco products)
Never 2.2 (1.0–3.3) Reference  
Former 3.0 (2.2–4.4) 0.48 (0.14)  
Current 3.5 (2.4–5.1) 0.57 (0.15) 0.0008
History of alcohol abuse No 3.0 (2.2–4.3) Reference  
Yes 3.6 (2.5–5.3) 0.18 (0.08) 0.03
Alcohol consumption during the preceding year (g/d) 0 3.4 (2.3–4.6) Reference  
≤ 2.32 3.0 (2.1–4.3) −0.03 (0.09) 0.31
>  2.32 ≤ 12.48 2.9 (2.2–4.2) −0.13 (0.09)  
> 12.48 3.1 (2.4–5.0) 0.02 (0.09)  
Alcohol consumption during the
past 10 years (g/d)
≤ 0.39 3.3 (2.1–4.3) Reference  
>  0.39 ≤ 10.49 3.1 (2.2–4.4) −0.05 (0.09)  
>  10.49 ≤ 42.88 2.8 (2.1–4.1) −0.08 (0.09)  
>  42.88 3.3 (2.5–5.1) 0.04 (0.09) 0.50
Sleep disturbance Not at all 3.0 (2.1–4.4) Reference  
A little 3.0 (2.2–4.0) −0.004 (0.07)  
Quite a bit 3.5 (2.5–4.9) 0.16 (0.10)  
Very much 3.1 (2.5–5.0) 0.17 (0.11) 0.20
  1. β is the parameter estimate associated with the increment of one unit of ln IL-6; IQR Interquartile range, SE Standard error